The Financial Fraud Institute is coming to St. George, Utah

STOP FRAUD UTAH and the Financial Fraud Institute are coming to St. George!  The event will take place on November 2nd from 4:00 to 7:00 p.m., at the Dixie Center.  The keynote speaker will be John W. Huber the United States Attorney for the District of Utah. Click on this link to access the brochure.

STOP FRAUD UTAH is a collaboration of federal, state, and local law enforcement and self-regulatory organizations working together to fight fraud in Utah by educating the community about ways to avoid being victimized. What is unique about this program is the depth of cooperation among federal, state, local law enforcement and self-regulatory organizations.  STOP FRAUD UTAH includes the following state and federal agencies:

• The SEC
• The United States Attorney’s Office
• The Commodities Futures Trading Commission
• The FBI
• The IRS
• The Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA)
• Utah Attorney General’s Office
• Utah Division of Securities
• Utah Division of Consumer Protection
• Salt Lake County Attorney’s Office
• Utah County Attorney’s Office
• Washington County Attorney’s Office

Additionally two panels made up of presenters from many of the agencies listed above will discuss financial fraud and consumer fraud. Informational booths from the various agencies, as well as the AARP, Utah Retirement Systems, Adult Protective Services, the Utah Department of Veterans & Military Affairs and the Better Business Bureau will be available to provide information to attendees.


Utah Federal, State, and Local Government Officials Join Forces to Educate Investors on How to Avoid Fraud

Public Seminars to be Held in Salt Lake City and Utah County

SALT LAKE CITY  April 5, 2017 – In a new, collaborative effort, Utah federal, state and local government officials established the Financial Fraud Institute and will hold two separate multi-agency seminars designed to educate Utah investors and consumers on how to recognize and avoid financial and consumer fraud, announced U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission Regional Director Richard R. Best and U.S. Attorney for the District of Utah John W. Huber.  The free seminars are open to the public and will be held in Salt Lake City on April 26 and in Utah County on May 10.

Officials from the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, U.S. Attorney’s Office, Utah Attorney General’s Office, Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA), Utah Division of Securities, U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission, Utah Division of Consumer Protection, FBI, IRS and Salt Lake/Utah County Attorneys offices will participate in the seminars. Utah Attorney General Sean Reyes will be the keynote speaker at the April seminar and Chief Magistrate Judge Paul M. Warner of the U.S. District Court for the District of Utah will be the keynote speaker at the May seminar. These are the first in a series of seminars to be held by representatives of the Financial Fraud Institute.

The seminars will provide information on:  key questions to ask before making investment decisions; where to find free and unbiased information; how to spot financial scams; and how to report suspected fraud.

WHO:      National and local experts from federal and state law enforcement and financial regulatory agencies

WHAT:    Financial Fraud Institute Seminars to educate investors and consumers on how to recognize and avoid fraud.

Salt Lake City

WHEN:                      April 26 in Salt Lake City

                                    5:00 p.m. – 8:30 p.m. See full agenda

WHERE:                   University of Utah, S.J. Quinney College of Law Auditorium

                                    383 S. University St., Salt Lake City, UT 84112

Free parking at the University of Utah Stadium

Utah County

WHEN:                      May 10 in Utah County

                                    5:00 p.m. – 8:30 p.m. See full agenda

WHERE:                   Utah Valley University, Classroom Building Rooms 101B and 101C

                                    800 W. University Parkway, Orem, UT 84058

Those interested in attending the seminars must register at: Salt Lake City and Utah County, or call 801-579-6191. For more information, visit

The seminars are open to the press.  Press interested in attending the events should contact Melodie Rydalch of the Utah U.S. Attorney’s Office on 801-243-6475 or


Follow us on Twitter at #StopFraudUtah.


SEC Publishes Recommendation on How Avoid Common Investment Scams in 2017

The Securities and Exchange Commission has published its annual list of tips designed to help investors with managing their money and avoiding common scams in the New Year.  Here is the list which is published by the SEC’s Office of Investor Education and Advocacy:



Whether you are a first-time investor or have been investing for years, here are 10 tips from the SEC’s Office of Investor Education and Advocacy to help you make better informed investment decisions and avoid common scams in 2017.

1. Always check the background of an investment professional—it is easy and free. You can find details of an investment professional’s background and qualifications through the search tool on the SEC’s website for individual investors,  If you have any questions about checking the background of an investment professional, you can call our toll-free investor assistance line at (800) 732-0330 for help.

2. Promises of high returns with little or no risk are classic warning signs of fraud.  Every investment carries some degree of risk and the potential for greater returns often correlates with greater risk.  Ignore so-called “can’t miss” and “guaranteed risk-free” investment opportunities.  Better yet, report them to the SEC.

3. Be careful when using social media as an investment tool.  Social media and the Internet have become important tools for investors, but also present opportunities for fraudsters to lure investors into a wide range of scams.  For additional information on ways to avoid fraud through social media, please read our bulletin on Social Media and Investing.

4. It can be costly to ignore fees associated with buying, owning, and selling an investment product.  Expenses vary from product to product, and even small differences in costs can mean large differences in earnings over time.  An investment with high costs must perform better than a low-cost investment to generate the same returns.Read our bulletin on How Fees and Expenses Affect Your Investment Portfolio to learn more.

5. Be alert to affinity fraud.  Affinity frauds target members of identifiable groups, such as the elderly, religious or ethnic communities, or the military.  Even if you know the person making the investment offer, be sure to check out the investment and the person’s background—no matter how trustworthy the person seems.

6. Any offer or sale of securities must be either registered with the SEC or exempt from registration.  Otherwise, it is illegal.  Registration is important because it provides investors access to key information about the company’s management, products, services, and finances. Always check whether an offering is registered with the SEC by using the SEC’s EDGAR database or contacting the SEC’s toll-free investor assistance line at (800) 732-0330.

7. Diversification can help reduce the overall risk of an investment portfolio.  By picking the right mix of investments, you may be able to limit your losses and reduce the fluctuations of your investment returns without sacrificing too much in potential gains.  Some investors find that it is easier to achieve diversification through ownership of mutual funds or exchange-traded funds rather than through ownership of individual stocks or bonds.

8. Did you know that active trading and some other very common investing behaviors actually can undermine investment performance? According to researchers, other common investing mistakes include focusing on past performance, favoring investments from your own country, region, state, or company, and holding on to losing investments too long and selling winning investments too soon.

9. If you are investing or saving toward a goal, or just want to learn about how your money can grow under various hypothetical scenarios, take advantage of our compound interest and savings goal calculators.These calculators are great tools to help inform any decisions you make about your investing and saving.

10. Unbiased resources are available to help you make informed investing decisions. Whether checking the background of an investment professional, researching an investment, or learning about new products or scams, unbiased information can be a significant advantage for investing wisely.  A great starting point is

If you have questions about your investments, your investment account or a financial professional, don’t hesitate to contact the SEC’s Office of Investor Education and Advocacy online or on our toll-free investor assistance line at (800) 732-0330.

The Office of Investor Education and Advocacy has provided this information as a service to investors.  It is neither a legal interpretation nor a statement of SEC policy.  If you have questions concerning the meaning or application of a particular law or rule, please consult with an attorney who specializes in securities law.

Confessed Fraudster Thomas Andrews Has Been Sentenced to 97 Months in Prison

As a follow-up to my prior story about a shocking small town fraud scheme that occurred in Nephi, Utah.  Yesterday the confessed perpetrator of that scheme, Tom Andrews, was sentenced to 97 months in prison.  This is the maximum sentence Judge Sam could have imposed. Hopefully others who might consider starting up a scheme like this will think twice when they see this significant prison sentence. This story about the sentencing appeared in the Deseret News today:

Judge comes down hard on former Nephi man in affinity fraud case

SALT LAKE CITY — A Sanpete County dairy owner told a federal judge Thursday that he’d be happy to have the man who stole his retirement money do some time on his farm.

Bob Bown said Tom Andrews needs to do some physical labor, get his hands dirty, rake manure out of stalls. “One of the best things that could happen to him is to do some hard work,” Bown said.

U.S. District Judge David Sam agreed thprison_mainat it would be “wonderful” if Andrews could “get some calluses to earn a buck,” but federal rules prevented him from imposing such a penalty.

The judge, however, sentenced Andrews to 97 months in prison — the maximum under sentencing guidelines — after the former Nephi man admitted to securities fraud and mail fraud. Sam, who rejected an earlier plea deal as too lenient, said he would have ordered a longer prison term if he could. Sam also ordered him to pay $8.3 million in restitution.

Sam then made the rare move for a white-collar case of placing Andrews, 40, in custody on the spot. A couple dozen of the victims applauded as U.S. marshals escorted Andrews from the courtroom in handcuffs.

“It just makes me sad,” Sam said, noting how Andrews wiped out people’s retirement savings. “It’s kind of like taking the widow’s mite.”

Andrews, who ran a Nephi tax return preparation service, admitted to encouraging nearly two dozen people to roll over their retirement accounts into fake companies he created called Jackson Trust and Lincoln Financial Group. He mailed them doctored financial statements from California to make the companies appear legitimate.

Andrews used at least $5.5 million for his living expenses and personal benefit, including luxury cars, homes and vacations. Investigators say all the money is gone. Victims — many of them longtime friends whom Andrews considered family — don’t expect to ever recoup their losses.

“He has lived as a millionaire for years and everybody else is paying for that now,” victim Ben Rosenloff told the judge.

It was also revealed in court Thursday that Andrews failed to remit some of his clients’ federal and state tax payments, landing them in trouble with the IRS.

“I don’t understand him,” Bown said. “I thought I knew him, but I don’t.”

Prosecutor Jacob Strain said this case wasn’t like other investment fraud cases where investors hope to double their money in a get-rich-quick scheme. These were people who knew and trusted Andrews and who thought their money was safe and secure with him, he said.

Andrews read an apology to the victims, saying words can’t describe his regret and that he hopes people forgive him.

“I’ve hurt and destroyed people’s lives and I’m truly sorry for that,” he said. “I scarred them both emotionally and financially for years to come.”

Defense attorney Rebecca Skordas argued for a 70-month sentence because she said Andrews was “incredibly forthcoming when originally confronted about wrongdoing” — a statement that drew scoffs from the packed courtroom.

Andrews cooperated with federal investigators and helped them go through bank documents to determine how much money victims were owed, she said.

Mike Sperry, who said his parents lost their life savings, showed the judge a large poster with photos of Andrews, who moved to California, enjoying himself at Disneyland this fall.

“I don’t think any of the victims have been to Disneyland since this happened,” he said.

Sallie Rawlings, a Draper lawyer who along with her husband lost 30 years of retirement savings, suggested Andrews be required to write an apology letter to the 20 victims listed in the criminal charges and spend a year in prison for each of them, an idea the judge said he liked but he couldn’t do.

“This was a calculated and manipulated fraud perpetrated by a masterful thief,” Rawlings said. “Let’s send a message that this cowardly, cruel, brazen act will not be tolerated.”

The Deseret News’ Three Part Series on Affinity Fraud in Utah

hotspotsMy friend Dennis Romboy is a great reporter over at the Deseret News who put together a very detailed two-part story on affinity fraud that was published over the weekend.

Part One of the series was called “Utah’s fraud ‘epidemic’: Victims share anger, embarrassment, hurt” and provided the details of how a number of Utahn’s have been victimized by individuals in their community.  Here are some interesting takeaways from the article:

  • FBI supervisory special agent Mike Pickett, who heads the white-collar unit in the Salt Lake field office, estimates the annual dollar amount of fraud in Utah now exceeds $2 billion.
  • Utah Attorney General said affinity fraud is “rampant” in Utah. He has also used the word “epidemic” to describe what’s happening in the state, and that is despite aggressive efforts to prosecute criminals and educate an unsuspecting public.
  • So far in 2016, federal criminal fraud cases have totaled $59.3 million in losses, according to the U.S. Attorney’s Office.
  • Utah is in the top five in terms of investigations, indictments, prosecutions and sentences for investment fraud.

A number of the individuals featured in this story are victims of the Thomas Andrews scam that was detailed in my prior post called “A Shocking Story of A Small Town Fraud.”  I applaud these individuals for their bravery in publicly talking about what happened to them in the hope that some people will read the story and avoid making the same mistakes.

Part Two of the series was about how to protect yourself from being defrauded.  The article lists a number of ways to protect yourself, including the following “Red flag warnings of fraud”:

  • If it sounds too good to be true, it is.
  • Guaranteed returns aren’t. Every investment carries some risk.
  • Beauty isn’t everything. Don’t be fooled by slick websites.
  • Pressure to send money RIGHT NOW.

The article quotes me a number of times, including “Pugsley has succinct advice for anyone who receives an offer that mentions religion. ‘If someone brings up the church in the context of an investment pitch, then that’s the end of the discussion and you leave the room because people try to conflate the two,’ Pugsley said. ‘There should be no connection between the church and investments. Period.'”

To round it all up the Editorial Board of the newspaper published an opinion on the need to “trust but verify” that I thought was worth reproducing here:

In our opinion: Utah must ‘be trusting but verify’ regarding affinity fraud

The bucolic land of eastern Ohio is home to sizable pockets of the Amish community. Known for their collective ethos, these tight-knit religious cooperatives thrive on high levels of trust and social cohesion. Yet, the same trust that produces a remarkable culture of burden sharing can be exploited to perpetrate fraud.

In 2012, Monroe L. Beachy, a trusted name within the Amish community, was sent to prison for orchestrating a scheme that defrauded some 2,700 investors, many of them friends and neighbors.

Of course, the Amish are hardly the only religious group that’s vulnerable. As the Deseret News reported in a two-part series this week on affinity fraud: “Bernie Maddoff’s $20 billion fraud targeted wealthy Jewish people in Florida and Israel. Allen Stanford went after Southern Baptists before his $7 billion empire fell.” And, according to the Economist, the state with the most affinity fraud per capita is thought to be Utah, where members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints comprise some 60 percent of the population.

The common theme is communities with high levels of trust are particularly vulnerable to fraud. The solution then is a heightened scrutiny when mixing financial and religious relationship. Although there is unquestionably a role to play for government in preventing and punishing fraud, individual consumers must also take responsibility for how they spend their money.

As Utah Governor Gary Herbert told the Economist: “be trusting but verify.”

There are a variety of things consumers can do to fortify against potential affinity fraud. As noted, for starters individuals can exercise healthy dubiety, especially when an opportunity sounds too good to be true (spoiler: it probably is). Yet, this is easier said than done. The most effective schemes, for example, do not make extravagant claims. Bernie Maddoff was so successful because his “returns” were relatively modest, making his fraud more convincing.

As with Maddoff’s victims, in Utah there are many highly educated and discerning individuals who have been taken in. Thus, it’s important to look beyond the facade of an investment company to determine its validity, and be doubly cautious about mixing church and financial relationships. There is no substitute for doing your homework instead of relying on the word of someone you trust in other settings. Keeping these principles in mind can protect consumers from deceitful investment opportunities claimed by people they know.

There have always been those who seek gain at the cost of others. Yet, in a hyper-competitive economy with strong cultural status expectations, a heightened temptation may exist to cut corners and profit at the expense of others. In such an environment, it’s incumbent on individuals of sound mind — as well as governments and community leaders — to guard against fraud.

After all, without willing investors, affinity fraud is impossible.

Copyright © 2016 by Mark W. Pugsley.  All rights reserved.



The Steven B. Heinz Ponzi Scheme

Today I realized that I never posted about the case against Steven B. Heinz.  Please accept my apologies for this oversight, as this is a story that fits the purposes of this blog perfectly.  Heinz solicited his clients at his brokerage firm, Ogilvie Security Advisors Corporation, and used his membership in the Mormon Church to gain trust with investors, many of who were elderly and unsophisticated.  One investor, the recent widow who attended church with Heinz, invested after he volunteered to assist her with her finances and investments after her spouse died.  Her money is now gone.

Heinz “guaranteed” his investors a fixed rate of return from 6 percent to 120 percent a year, which garnered him nearly $4 million from more than fifteen former clients, family members, and friends.  He stated that this money was to be used for the purpose of day-trading futures contracts.  Heinz created the appearance of being a successful futures trader, but in reality he lost approximately $1.5 million.  Heinz also used investor money to pay “returns” to earlier investors using new investor funds (a classic Ponzi scheme).

On August 8, 2013, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) filed a lawsuit against Mr. Heinz and obtained a temporary restraining order and an asset freeze.

Mr. Heinz eventually settled with the SEC and on April 28, 2014, the United States District Court for the District of Utah entered a final judgment against him.  Heinz consented to the issuance of the judgment and admitted to all of the material facts the SEC alleged in its Complaint.  Specifically, Heinz admitted the following allegations in the SEC’s complaint:

  1. Beginning in January 2012, Heinz offered and sold investment contracts to more than fifteen investors, raising approximately $4 million for the purported purpose of investing in futures contracts. (SEC Complaint at ¶ 14.)
  2. Heinz solicited investments from his Ogilvie Securities clients. (SEC Complaint at ¶¶ 14, 17.)
  3. Heinz told Claimants that his trading strategy was so successful with his personal funds that he was willing to them with their investments too. (SEC Complaint at ¶ 15.)
  4. Heinz advised Claimants to liquidate some or all of their securities holdings and invest the funds with him. (SEC Complaint at ¶ 16.)
  5. Heinz promised victims that they would earn tax-free income. (SEC Complaint at ¶ 18.)
  6. Heinz advised at least one couple  to liquidate their investment which caused them to incur $45,000 in penalties. (SEC Complaint at ¶ 20.)
  7. Heinz provided written investment contracts which specified a guaranteed rate of return. The investment contracts stated the amount invested and the guaranteed rate of return. (SEC Complaint at ¶ 21.)
  8. Heinz did not prepare a private placement memorandum or financial disclosures with respect to this purported investment. (SEC Complaint at ¶ 22.)
  9. While Heinz did use a portion of investor funds to purchase futures contracts, bank records show that he misappropriated approximately $1 million in investors’ funds for personal purposes, such as the payment of his personal credit cards in the amount of $331,000, household expenses, personal travel, to fund business opportunities for his children, and to repay a personal loan for $600,000. (SEC Complaint at ¶¶ 30, 31.)
  10. Heinz also used new investor funds to repay earlier investors their purported profits or return of principal in what is a classic Ponzi scheme. (SEC Complaint at ¶ 35.)

The judgment permanently enjoined Heinz from future violations of the securities laws and requires him to pay disgorgement and prejudgment interest of $3,656,675.84.  The judgment also bars Heinz from association with any broker, dealer, investment adviser, municipal securities dealer, municipal advisor, transfer agent, or nationally recognized statistical rating organization and from participating in any offering of a penny stock.  Heinz consented to the issuance of the judgment as is currently working to pay off the huge disgorgement amount.  Mr. Heinz was also charged criminally by the U.S. Attorney’s office here in Utah and is currently serving weekends under house arrest.

Many of the victims are seeking compensation through a FINRA arbitration against Heinz’s brokerage firm, Ogilvie Security Advisors Corporation and a number of its principals for failing to supervise him appropriately.  Our firm is handling that case.

If you are a victim of this scam feel free to post your experiences in the comments below.

Why Were So Many Madoff Victims Jewish?

This is a repost of an article by Harold Pollack that appeared in the Atlantic Monthly this week.  This has lots of relevance to the issues we deal with here in Utah; insular religious communities are a real hotbed for affinity fraud.  In fact, there is a reference to Utah’s unique affinity fraud problem and a reference to the “Fleecing the Flock” article about affinity fraud in Utah that appeared in the Economist several years ago.

Why Were So Many Madoff Victims Jewish?

The trust people tend to feel toward others in the same ethnic, racial, and political groups makes them easy targets for scammers.

Last week’s ABC mini-series chronicled the most famous financial fraud in recent American history: Bernard Madoff’s $50 billion Ponzi scheme, which devastated elite institutions and families of the American Jewish community. The scale of Madoff’s crimes was breathtaking. There’s much to be said about his crimes—not least about the incompetence of the regulatory apparatus that failed to stop him despite repeated warnings and what researchers Greg Gregoriou and Francois Lhabitant quite appropriately called “a riot of red flags” over many years.The tragedy itself was also its own sort of warning. Madoff’s victims were not a random assortment of the well-off; he decimated a segment of the wealthy Jewish community and several Jewish charitable organizations. Knowing the general magnitude of Madoff’s crime, I’m still taken aback by the particulars, which betray Madoff’s lack of conscience and any sense of limits. He wiped out Elie Wiesel’s life savings, and stole $15 million from Wiesel’s foundation. Madoff defrauded Hadassah. Who defrauds Hadassah? That’s like mugging your grandmother.
 Such crimes would not have been possible without the cultural ease and social entre Madoff enjoyed in the Jewish community. To put a name on things, this was one of the worst affinity frauds in Americans history, whereby unscrupulous people exploit their cultural connections and people’s communal identities to rip them off. In that sense, Madoff’s crimes were a warning to everyone about how in-group feelings of trust leave people vulnerable.
Affinity fraud is depressingly common. My own incidental exposure would be comical if the stakes weren’t so serious. I happen to live in a majority African American neighborhood in south Chicagoland. Although you wouldn’t know it to look at me, marketing algorithms based on my street address and some of my purchases apparently reveal that I am a middle-aged, middle-class African American man.Based on that identification, I get an impressive volume of sales pitches. If the letters, Facebook ads and robo-calls are to be believed, President Obama is obsessed with refinancing my mortgage. Our 44th president particularly wants me to take out a 15-year loan, one much better than what can be found at the bank. He also wants to sell me health insurance and some other things, which would be good for me, and good for the community. Many such deals offer a low interest rate, and are targeted to people in fear of losing their homes. But then they charge hidden or opaque fees for “refinance consultations.” Some ask for people’s home titles or pose as intermediaries, falsely promising to make payments to the actual lenders. The details vary, but purveyors of such sales pitches hope that their too-good-to-be-true offering will go down easier when combined with appeals for political or ethnic solidarity.I sometimes chuckle when I hang up after fielding such a sales call. But there’s nothing funny about efforts to defraud people or to deceptively market products by exploiting people’s personal and communal ties. In light of the empty houses and fading for-sale signs not far from my front door, such pitches are especially terrible, as they purport to offer a way out to many people in deep financial difficulty.
 Other communities face similar challenges. In the lead up to the foreclosure crisis, unscrupulous lenders deployed Spanish-speaking saleswomen to target recent immigrants. Once they won consumers’ trust with a persuasive sales pitch, lenders presented consumers with incomprehensible English-language financial documents that often steered people into risky, overpriced, or fraudulent loans. In other cases, con artists offer to help immigrants of the same nationality, and use the opportunity to obtain people’s Social Security numbers and other financial information, which is then used for mortgage fraud.
Pretty much any powerful connection humans make with others provides some correspondingly powerful opportunity for affinity fraud. Here in Chicago, an ex-Marine exploited his service ties to defraud fellow veterans. Affinity fraud is an issue within the LGBTQ community, as well. A terrific Economist story, aptly titled “Fleecing the Flock,” quotes an Alabama regulator’s estimate that half the affinity frauds in that region arise in religious communities.
It’s easy to see why. Such communities’ intimate ties of faith and mutual trust create particular vulnerabilities. Traditions such as tithing normalize provision of substantial resources to co-religionists whose financial acuity and probity may be difficult to fully discern. The Church of Latter Day Saints has experienced such a spate of cases that the Economist noted the “hook of Mormon” as a distinctive concern.As those Obama mortgage pitches suggest, political tribalism provides another potent opportunity for connection—and thus fraud—in a polarized nation. Right-wing talk radio, for example, features an array of advertising for dubious financial products, whose sales pitch conveniently matches the programs’ scaremongering regarding economic policy. Glenn Beck’s connection with Goldline was one notorious example of such products. Beck’s program relentlessly depicted an American economy on the verge of hyperinflation and collapse—an apocalypse naturally hastened by Barack Obama and other liberal political leaders. During commercial breaks, Beck’s audience was then conveniently exposed to Goldline, a purveyor of dicey gold investments.
Perpetrators of affinity fraud seeking to win our trust do the most lasting damage when they recruit community leaders as explicit or implicit endorsers. Some seek to provide a sense of status or peer pressure through nominally exclusive opportunities to join them. Madoff wouldn’t let just anyone invest in his closed funds. Many practitioners of affinity fraud imply that they have secret and timely information, which can turn into serious money if one acts quickly and discreetly.Practitioners of affinity fraud subtly exploit a community’s distrust of outsiders to discredit alternative sources of information. It becomes a mark of collective identity to spurn conflicting information and advice. Of course the lame-stream liberal media looks down on us for putting so much of our retirement savings into gold. Of course the same Washington experts trying to cut Social Security and Medicare look down on this variable annuity which might plug the holes in your retirement plan.
It’s ironic: The most cynical and distrustful among us are often the easiest marks.The weird information economics of herding also matter. You entrust your money with someone. Many people you know are doing the same thing. Each of you hopes and believes that someone has done the due diligence regarding these investments. If no one actually has, how would you know? After a while, it’s embarrassing to even ask.Whatever public policymakers do to address these problems, individuals should be especially skeptical of any financial product embraced by influential people in their religious, cultural, or political communities. Given such realities, it’s a mistake to allow personal familiarity, community affiliation, or time pressure to become a substitute for proper written contracts and the same due diligence one would apply to any stranger selling investment products or advice.In the end, any person’s best protection against affinity fraud is to avoid complex or speculative investment products offered by anyone, since even the honestly-offered fancy investment products very rarely provide much benefit. Following a simple investment plan is pretty boring. It remains the best bet. Once Americans internalize the reality that vanilla stock-and-bond index funds basically outperform everything else, and that vanilla  fixed-rate mortgages are the safest way to get a loan, they’ll save themselves a lot of time. They just might save themselves a lot of heartache, too.

Repost: Affinity fraud continues to plague Utahns and Mormons

This is a great article by Donovan C. Baltich that appeared on July 16, 2014 in BYU’s newspaper The Daily Universe:

The case of a Davis County man wanted for an alleged scheme that officials say took the life savings of Utah residents and brought in tens of millions of dollars shows the vulnerability of Utahns to financial scams. The 63-year-old suspect, set for an initial court hearing in July in Salt Lake City, is alleged  to have used the cachet of two Utah institutions — the LDS Church and the Boy Scouts of America — to bilk his victims.

Confidence between members of a religious group has its drawbacks when used by confidence-men, or ‘conmen.’ When a fellow member of a ward, cultural group, neighborhood or school builds affinity and then exploits that trust to profit from it, it’s known as affinity fraud.

The state with the highest rate of affinity fraud is Utah, where more than 60 percent of its population belongs to the LDS Church. The FBI calculates that there were more than 4,400 victims in 2012 with a net loss of $1.4 billion. It’s not that LDS Church members and Utahns haven’t been warned. In 1982, then BYU President Jeffrey R. Holland warned students about such schemes. Warnings have appeared many times over the years in conferences and church publications with a similar theme — if it sounds to good to be true, it probably is.

“I was working … on the BYU—Hawaii Campus only to open the Sunday edition of the Honolulu Advertiser to read this headline: ‘Mormon Utah called a test market for scams,’” Elder Holland said. “‘Utah’s large Mormon population has become a prime target for con artists and swindlers.’”

Many cases of fraud were revealed in the 1980s because of economic decline. Fraud skyrockets when the economy booms, but it is exposed in downturns. The highest case profile of affinity fraud in history was exposed during the recent great recession. This was the case of Bernie Madoff, who used his affiliation as a Jew to target the Jewish community.

“There’s also a mentality … that if we’re righteous we’re going to get wealthy … so when we hear about somebody in the community, our friend or some church leader, who has some great investment we think, ‘Well that’s a blessing for us and we’ve paid our tithing and so forth,’” Zimbelman said. “They decide they don’t need to do their homework because someone else is in it that they trust.” Zimbelman is BYU’s expert on financial statement fraud. He discusses the reason why members of the LDS Church often fall prey to con artists.

Affinity fraud affects victims on a large scale but also has local applications. Travis Hardin, a BYU student, lived at the Riviera Apartments during Fall 2010 semester. One of his roommates was charismatic and claimed to be a BYU basketball player. He was popular within his apartment complex and the Helaman Halls community, but his fame came crashing down when another roommate exposed him.

“You just didn’t realize that his real life was showing through the whole time,” Hardin said. “Everything was a lie; he even lied about what his last name was.”

Hardin’s fraudulent roommate had previously served time in prison for committing check fraud. He invited Hardin and others to move into a house with him. He even collected down payments from them, but the house never actually existed.

Fasi Filiaga Jr., a member of the LDS Church, ran a company called Spread Trade Systems, an organization that taught individuals how to invest in stocks and options. He ran his seminars via the Internet, bringing in students from all over the nation and from various religious denominations.

Over a series of years, a relationship of trust flourished between Filiaga and his students. He then invited them to take part in his investment management group. They would give him money, and he would invest it for them.

One particular student, Eric Nelson of Utah County and also a member of the LDS church, remained skeptical of Filiaga’s investment group, even though their commonality as Mormons helped Nelson relate with Filiaga. Nelson studied the company and attended the investment meetings for a full year before he and his wife decided to invest.

“It was a fraud from the beginning. The money given to Fasi was never invested; it went to him and his company,” Nelson said.

Over the duration of his investment group, Filiaga swindled $2 million out of his students. Filiaga was not charged for his crimes until Nelson and other victims filed a class-action lawsuit against Filiaga. As a result, Filiaga is serving time in prison. Con artists often say their investments will bring returns of more than 20 percent in a quarter and that one should act fast.

“If you know where the treasure is, you’re not selling maps to show people how to find the treasure; you’re digging up the treasure yourself,” Zimbelman said. “Any kind of return like that, any kind of outrageous interest rate (20 percent), is … virtually guaranteed that it’s a ponzi scheme.”

In 2011, Utah’s governor signed an affinity fraud bill into law. Its aim is to exact harsher penalties on those who exploit confidence against vulnerable adults, like the elderly or mentally handicapped. As fraud is usually exposed in times of economic downturn, data is unavailable to show the effects of the law.

“It’s too early to tell if the law deters affinity fraud; we don’t have a large enough sample size yet,” said Keith Woodwell, director of the Utah Division of Securities. “The bill doesn’t work retroactively, but we’ve had a handful of cases since 2011 that have had harsher penalties applied.”

As measures are taken to deter fraudulent activities, it is ultimately up to individuals to steer clear. Zimbelman advises people to do their homework, to diversify their portfolios and when propositioned with an investment opportunity to think, ‘why do they want me?’ and ‘how do they make their money?’ When investment opportunities sound to good to be true, they usually are.

Utah Division of Securities Releases Top Investor Threats for 2013

SALT LAKE CITY, Utah – Keith Woodwell, Director of the Utah Division of Securities, announced today that the Division has released a new list of Top Investor Threats facing consumers with its partner, the North American Securities Administrators Association (NASAA). The 2013 list examines offers, practices, and investment scenarios that are being aggressively marketed to those trying to build and protect their nest eggs for retirement. The Utah Division of Securities investigators are concerned that with the passage of the JOBS Act lifting advertising restrictions on securities and other investments, consumers face even greater challenges when deciding where to invest their earnings.

“With new advertising flooding the marketplace and currency vehicles such as Bitcoin making headlines, investors are facing new and confusing messages,” cautioned Director Woodwell, “Rest assured, our messages at the state level remain stable: Choose your investments carefully, don’t jump into something you don’t fully understand, and work with a licensed professional when it comes to protecting your money.”

The 2013 list was compiled by the members of North American Securities Administrators Association.

Private Offerings: Fraudulent private placement offerings continue to rank as the most common product or scheme leading to investigations and enforcement actions by state securities regulators. These offerings commonly are referred to as Reg D/Rule 506 offerings, named for the exemption in federal securities laws that allows private placements to be sold to investors without registration). By definition these are limited investment offerings that are highly illiquid, generally lack transparency and have little regulatory oversight. While Reg D/Rule 506 offerings are used by many legitimate companies to raise capital, they carry high risk and may not be suitable for many individual investors. With the passage of the JOBS Act and recent adoption of rules implementing certain aspects of the Act, restrictions on how Reg D/Rule 506 offerings can be marketed to the general public have been relaxed, including the lifting of an 80‐year ban on general solicitations (advertising). Investors soon will begin to see advertisements for private placement offerings on a variety of platforms including social media, billboards, or t‐shirts on window washers as one startup has proposed, even though only a very small percentage of the population will be eligible to invest. And, as is often the case, scam artists are likely to use this legally permissible avenue to their advantage leading, no doubt, to another year of Rule 506 offerings holding the top spot as the most frequent source of state securities enforcement actions.

Real Estate Investment Schemes: The popularity of investments involving distressed real estate continues throughout the boom and bust cycle in the U.S. housing market. Even as housing prices continue to recover in many U.S. markets, investors should be aware that schemes related to new real estate development projects or buying, renovating, flipping or pooling distressed properties are popular with con artists. In the latest NASAA enforcement survey, real estate investments were the second‐most common product leading to securities fraud investigations by state securities regulators. While legitimate real estate investments can be an important part of a diversified investment portfolio, there are substantial risks with many types of real estate investments. In particular, state regulators have seen problems with non‐traded real estate investment trusts (REITS), properties that are bank‐owned, pending short‐sale, or in foreclosure, and flimsy promises
of investment funds being secured by an interest in real property when the property in question is already highly leveraged and has no
remaining equity. As with all investments, careful vetting and due diligence is a must with real estate investments.

High‐Yield Investment and Ponzi Schemes: Retail investors chasing yield often find themselves falling prey to high‐yield investment and Ponzi schemes promising unbelievably high rates of returns. That trend continues and does not appear to be going away any time soon. As with other alternative investments, high yield means higher risk and these types of alternative investments are favorites of scam artists. Whether a typical Ponzi scheme or a high‐yield investment program, many of the characteristics are the same – promise of incredibly high return coupled with low risk; a reasonably plausible explanation of why the investment is so good; a scam artist with credibility often based on claims of holding false credentials or being part of a particular group or organization. Initial investors are paid a return and help spread the word by promoting the investment to others.

Ultimately the scam will collapse leaving later investors with nothing to show for their trust in the scheme. One way to protect yourself is to ask questions and when you think you have asked all the questions you have, ask more questions. As Bernie Madoff, the king of Ponzi schemes, once said, he only turned people away when they asked too many questions.

Affinity Fraud: Marketing a fraudulent investment scheme to members of an identifiable group or organization continues to be a highly successful and lucrative practice for Ponzi scheme operators and other fraudsters. Fraudsters know that people tend to trust someone who is perceived to have a common interest, beliefs or background and use that trust to exploit members of specific groups. The most commonly exploited are the elderly or retired, religious and ethnic groups, and the deaf community. Members of the group often find it hard to believe that “one of their own” could be scamming them. Consequently, affinity fraud can go unreported or when a regulator becomes involved,
members of the group choose not to cooperate. Investors should keep in mind that investment decisions should be made based on a careful evaluation of the underlying merits of the offer rather than common affiliations with the promoter.

Scam Artists Using Self‐Directed IRAs to Mask Fraud: Scam artists are using self‐directed individual retirement accounts (IRAs) to increase the appeal of their fraudulent schemes. State securities regulators have investigated numerous cases where a self‐directed IRA was used in an attempt to lend credibility to a bogus venture. While self‐directed IRAs can be a safe way to invest retirement funds, investors should be mindful of potential fraudulent schemes when considering a self‐directed IRA. Custodians and trustees of self‐directed IRAs may have limited
duties to investors, and generally will not evaluate the quality, value or legitimacy of an investment or its promoters. Fraud promoters pushing a Ponzi scheme or other investment fraud can misrepresent the responsibilities of self‐directed IRA custodians in order to deceive investors
into believing that their investments are legitimate or protected against losses. While a scam artist may suggest that self‐ directed IRA custodians analyze and validate investments, those custodians only hold the assets in a self‐directed IRA and generally do not evaluate the quality,
value or legitimacy of any investment. In some cases, fraud promoters convince investors to move assets from an existing self‐directed or traditional IRA into a fake self‐directed IRA held by a supposed custodian created and owned by the scam artist. Fraudsters also exploit the tax‐deferred characteristics of self‐directed IRAs, and know that the financial penalty for early withdrawal may cause investors to be more passive or to keep funds in a fraudulent scheme longer than those who invest through other means.

Self‐directed IRAs also allow investors to hold alternative investments such as real estate, mortgages, tax liens, precious metals, and private placement securities. Financial and other information necessary to make a prudent investment decision may not be as readily available for
these alternative investments.

Risky Oil and Gas Drilling Programs: Investors exploring alternatives to traditional securities may be attracted to the lucrative returns often associated with investments in oil and gas drilling programs. Retail investors increasingly are turning to alternative investments including oil and gas drilling investments as opposed to traditional stocks, bonds and mutual funds. These investments appeal to those frustrated with stock market volatility or skeptical of Wall Street.  Unfortunately, energy investments generally prove to be a poor substitute for traditional
retirement planning. Investments in oil and gas drilling programs typically involve a high degree of risk and are suitable only for investors who can bear the loss of the entirety of their principal. Some promoters will conceal these risks, using high pressure sales tactics and deceptive
marketing practices to peddle worthless investments in oil wells to the investing public. There are active investigations into suspect oil and gas investment programs in more than two dozen states and in every region of the U.S. and Canada. Investors should conduct thorough due diligence and assess their own tolerance for considerable risk when considering the purchase of interests in oil and gas programs.

New Threats to Investors

Proxy Trading Accounts: Investors should be wary of individuals who claim to have trading expertise and offer to set up or manage a trading account on an investor’s behalf. Allowing an unlicensed individual to have access to the username and password for your brokerage account or worse, allowing an unlicensed individual to set up a brokerage account in your name, is a recipe for disaster. Allowing someone without the legally‐required safeguards of proper registration and bonding requirements to control your account often leads not only to substantial trading losses, but the loss of investment funds through improper withdrawals from the account including theft. Investors should check with their state securities regulator to confirm that anyone offering to manage your accounts is properly registered and has a clean background. Financial professionals who make the commitment to be properly registered also commit to act ethically and honestly. If they do
not uphold that obligation, they will answer to state or federal regulators. Unfortunately, the same cannot be said for the unlicensed individual looking to capitalize on an investor’s trusting nature.

Digital Currency: Virtual reality may exist only in science fiction, but consumers now are able to purchase goods and services with virtual money such as Bitcoin, PP Coin and other digital currencies. Unlike traditional coinage, these alternatives typically are not backed by tangible
assets, are not issued by a governmental authority and are subject to little or no regulation. The value of Bitcoins and other digital currencies is highly volatile and the concept behind the currency is difficult to understand even for sophisticated financial experts given the complicated
mathematical algorithms that determine when new blocks of coins will be released. This environment has provided fertile ground for scam artists to capitalize on the increasing popularity and acceptance of digital currencies. Investors should be aware that investments that incorporate abstract money systems present very real risks, including the possibility of virtual reality leaving an investor virtually broke.

New Threats to Small Businesses

Capital‐raising Pitfalls: Recent law changes and newly available capital from investors including “angels” – affluent individuals who provide capital for a business startup – have changed the business funding landscape. The new and enhanced opportunities to raise capital through
crowdfunding, public advertising for investors under JOBS Act regulations and angel funding “solutions” also carry risks for unwary entrepreneurs. Securities offerings either must be exempt from registration requirements or properly registered, even under the new laws. Exempt securities remain subject to federal or state anti‐fraud provisions meaning entrepreneurs must provide full and accurate disclosures as part of any offering. Remember a security can be a stock, note, agreement, financial instrument or anything else that provides an investor with an expectation of participating in the profits the entrepreneur generates. The inadvertent failure of an entrepreneur to follow securities laws can result in money judgments for investors that can rob the profits of a new or expanding business enterprise. It pays to research your selected method of capitalization before you solicit any investors.

Unregulated Third Party Service Providers: The implementation of the JOBS Act has created opportunities for unregulated third parties to provide ancillary services. Whether a crowdfunding portal or an accredited investor aggregator, it is important to do your due diligence and to
understand that use of an unregulated third party to provide such services does not change your obligations under federal and state securities laws. Not only should a small business or other entrepreneur make sure they are dealing with a legitimate service provider, they should also make sure that the service being offered is in full compliance with all federal and state requirements. Since the passage of the JOBS Act, new firms have joined existing firms that offer to sell lists of accredited investors for use in private placement offerings. However, new rules recently adopted by the SEC include more stringent requirements replacing the old fail safe of reliance on an investor‐ completed questionnaire claiming accredited investor status. If not done carefully and with federal requirements in mind, an entrepreneur will suffer the consequences, which could include the loss of any claimed exemption. Use of crowd funding portals, while subject to some regulation, also opens the door to scams. Startup businesses, especially small local businesses, should be very careful to verify the legitimacy of a portal before engaging their services.

Investors are not alone in their potential to be scammed. Using a fraudulent portal means both the
business and the investor stand to lose.


Organized in 1919, the North American Securities Administrators Association (NASAA) is the oldest
international organization devoted to investor protection. NASAA is a voluntary association whose membership consists of 67 state, provincial, and territorial securities administrators in the 50
states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Canada, and Mexico. In the United States, NASAA is the voice of state securities agencies responsible for efficient capital formation and grass‐roots investor protection. Their fundamental mission is protecting consumers who purchase securities or investment advice, and their jurisdiction extends to a wide variety of issuers and intermediaries who offer and sell securities to the public. NASAA members license firms and their agents, investigate violations of state and provincial law, file enforcement actions when appropriate, and educate the public about investment fraud. Through the association, NASAA members also participate in multi‐state enforcement actions and information sharing. NASAA also coordinates and implements training and education seminars annually for state/district/provincial and territorial securities agency staff.

About the Utah Division of Securities

The Division of Securities enhances Utah’s business climate by protecting Utah’s investors through
education, enforcement, and fair regulation of Utah’s investment industry while fostering
opportunities for capital formation. Investors should do business with licensed securities brokers
and advisers and report any suspicion of investment fraud to the Utah Division of Securities by
calling (801) 530.6600; toll free at 1.800.721.7233 or logging on to our website.

Not All Ponzi Schemes Are Prosecuted by the SEC

This week a Utah man named Kenneth Tebbs was sentenced to six and a half years in federal prison for operating a $49 million Ponzi Scheme in Salt Lake City.  According to the article in the Salt Lake Tribune the investment scheme victimized more than 100 investors, many of them elderly people, family and friends.

This case is somewhat unique because civil charges were never filed by the Securities and Exchange Commission or the State of Utah.  Instead, Mr. Tibbs filed for bankruptcy – but only after soliciting more investments from, among other, an elderly widow.  According to her letter to Judge Sam, Tebbs had sat her a couch and held her hand while telling her an investment of practically all of her savings would be profitable and safe. Two weeks later, he filed for bankruptcy. Many of the victims “were victimized on the eve of bankruptcy, when the wheels of the filing of bankruptcy were in motion” according to the article. Continue reading “Not All Ponzi Schemes Are Prosecuted by the SEC”